In this post you will learn about what is Direct and Indirect speech ,Its rules to change from direct to indirect and with examples. This post is very informative and after reading this most you don;t need any books .After reading this post you will be expert in this Reported speech and can score good marks in your exams.
When we quote the actual words of a speaker, it is called Direct Narration
Example-She said, “It is time to go away.”
-When we give the substance of the words used by speaker ,and not the actual words, it is called Indirect Narration.
Example– She said that it was time to go.
NOTE-The tense of Reported Verb is never changed but the tense of the Reported Speech is liable to certain changes in passing from Direct Narration to the Indirect, and these depend in the Tense of the Reported Verb.
RULES FOR CONVERSION FROM DIRECT SPEECH TO INDIRECT SPEECH
I) Remove comma and inverted commas.
II)The Reported speech is introduced by the conjunction ‘that’.
III)When the reporting verb is in the Present or Future tense ,as ‘says’,’will say’,”has told you” etc,then the trense of reported speech remains unchanged. If Reporting verb has Past tense as –‘said’, ‘declared’ etc..,,then the tense of the reported speech is changed as follows-
- 1.Present Indefinite Tense changes into Past Indefinite Tense.
- 2. Present Continuous Tense changes into Past Continuous Tense.
- 3.Present Perfect Tense changes into Past Perfect Tense
- 4.Present Perfect Continuous Tense changes into Past Perfect Continuous Tense.
- 5. Past Indefinite Tense changes into Past Perfect Tense.
- 6. Past Continuous Tense changes into Past Perfect Continuous Tense.
- 7.In Past Perfect there is no changes
- 8.In Past Perfect Continuous there is also no changes.
1V) If Reporting Verb is the Past Tense ,the modal auxiliaries are changes as follows-
- ‘Will’ is changed into ‘Would’
- ‘Shall’ is changed into ‘Should’
- ‘May’ is changed into ‘Might’
- ‘Can’ is changed into ‘Could’
- ‘Is’ , ‘am’ is changed into ‘Was’
- ‘Are’ is changed into ‘Were’
- ‘Has is changed into ‘Had’
- ‘Has been ‘ is changed into ‘ Had been’
V) Changes in Pronouns
- a) Ist person pronouns in the Reported Speech are changed according to the Subject of Reported verb.
- b) IInd person Pronouns in the Reported Speech are changed according to the Object of the Reporting verb.
- c) IIIrd person Pronouns in the Reported Speech are not changed.
VI) Some changes in words
- ‘This’ is changed into ‘That’
- ‘These’ is changed into ‘Those’
- ‘Thus’ is changed into ’so’
- ‘Just’ is changed into ‘Then’
- ‘Ago’ is changed into ‘Before’
- ‘Now’ is changed into ‘There’
- ‘Today’ is changed into ‘That day’
- ‘Come’ is changed into ‘Go’
- ‘Tonight’ is changed into ‘That night’
- ‘Tomorrow’ is changed into ‘Next day’
- ‘Yesterday’ is changed into ‘The previous day’
- ‘Last night’ is changed into ‘ The previous night’
- ‘Next week’ is changed into ‘The following week’
RULES FOR CHANGE OF TENSE OF VERBS IN REPORTED SPEECH
1.)If the Reporting Verb is in the Present Tense or Future Tense, the Tense of the Verb in the Reported Speech remains unchanged
|1.Anu says to me ,”I am reading”.||1) Anu tells me that she is reading.|
|2.He will say ,”You have spoken falsely.”||2)He will tell you that you have spoken falsely.|
|3.She will say, “The boy was lazy.”||3) She will tell that the boy was lazy.|
2.) If the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense, the Tense of the verb in Reported Speech is changed as under-
|1.He said ,”The man shall come.”||He said that the man should come|
|2.He said ,”The man may come.”||He said that the man might come.|
|3.He said ,”I did my duty.”||He said that he had done his duty.|
|4.He said ,”She has been coming.”||He said that she had been coming.|
|5.Ruchi said ,”He had been playing.”||Ruch said that he had been playing.|
When Reported speech has a helping verb in the beginning as- is,am,are,was,has,have,had,can ,could etc.Then-
i)’said to’ is changed into ‘asked’ or ‘’enquired’.
ii) Conjunctions ‘if’ or ‘whether’ is used in place of inverted commas (“ ”).
iii) Interrogative sentence is changed into the affirmative sentence.
iv) Question mark (?) is omitted after reported speech.
|1)He said ,”Does Ram go to school?||1)He asked if Ram went to school.|
|2)She said,”Have I not a book?”||2)She asked if she had not a book|
|3)She said,”Are they going abroad?”||3)She asked if they were going abroad.|
1.2) Double Interrogative-
In the sentences beginning with question words (what, when, why, how ,where etc)-
- ‘said to’ is generally into ‘asked’
- In these sentences no conjunction is used in place of inverted commas.
- Reported speech is changed into the assertive sentence and question mark is also omitted.
|1) She said, “Why is he making a doll?”||1)She asked why he was making a doll.|
|2) He said to you ,”Where do you live now?”||2)He asked you where you lived then.|
|3) She said to me, “Who teaches you Hindi?”||3)She asked me who taught me hindi.|
|4) He said to you, “Why have you stolen my pen?”||4)He asked you why you had stolen his pen.|
I. In these sentences when the subject is omitted ,then–
a) ‘said to’ is changed according to the mood of reported speech as ‘ordered,’ ‘requested’ ,’forbade’ or ‘advised’.
b) Conjunction is not used.’To’ is used before the verb of the reported speech.
c) If reported speech is negative, we use “forbade to” with ‘forbade’, ‘not’ is not used.
|1) He said to me, “Do it.”||1) He asked me to do it.|
|2) I said to my teacher, “Pardon me”.||2) I begged my teacher to pardon me.|
|3) My mother said, “Do not keep bad company.”||3) My mother forbade me to keep bad company.|
II) When the Reported speech begins with ‘Let’, then-
a)’said to’ is changed into ‘suggested’, ‘proposed’ ,’requested’ ,’advised’ or ‘ordered’.
b) If pronoun ‘us’ is placed after ‘Let’, ‘let us’ is changed into ‘that they should’ or ‘that they might’.
|1) He said to them,”Let us go to swim.”||1) He proposed them that they should go to swim|
|2) She said,” Let me work now.”||2) She requested to let her work then.|
|3) He said, “Let me go there.”||3) He requested that he might be allowed to go there.|
a)These sentences are changed into assertive and the mark of exclamation(!) is replaced by a full stop.
b)’said’ is changed into ‘exclaimed with joy’, ’exclaimed with regret’ , ‘admitted’, or ‘confessed’.
c)’that’ is used as a conjunction.
|1)He said, ”What a beautiful sight!”||1)He exclaimed with joy that it was a very beautiful sight.|
|2)She said , ”Alas! I am undone”||2)She exclaimed with sorrow that she was undone.|
|3)He said, ”How sad she is!”||3) He exclaimed that she was very sad.|
|4)She said, ”Good bye friends!”||4) She bade good bye to her friends.|
|5)He said , ”How beautiful this rose is!”||5) He exclaimed with delight that the rose was very beautiful.|
3) OPTATIVE SENTENCES
- In these sentences ‘say’ is changed into ‘wish’ or ‘pray’ and ‘said’ is changed into ‘wished’ or ‘prayed’.
- Conjunction ‘that’ is used after reporting verb.
|1) She said to me, “May you live long!”||1) She prayed that I might live long.|
|2) He said to me, ”May you be happy!’||2) He wished that I might be happy.|
|3) She said, “Long live the P.M.!||3) She prayed that the P.M. might live long.|
So this is all about Direct and Indirect Speech and its rules .Kindly save or write all rules and examples in your notebook.